Later on, during a muddy outdoors scene shot on horseback, she takes on a lord involved in the Jacobite uprising. Although music videos were taped, they were coded and analyzed separately due to their unique characteristics and are not reported here. Research Brief Key findings: However this has not been the typical pattern in television. If we look at theatrical movies, we can infer that sex and violence have escalated at the same time. This approach reflects the most current methodological innovation for calculating reliability across large numbers of coders who are rendering content-based judgments at multiple levels of analysis. Thus, it is important to know what types of messages about sex, its consequences, and sexual responsibility are presented on television shows watched by teens. George responds at the top of his voice, "You slept with the groom? However even when carefully done, the subject of sex presents special problems. Others feel that showing or discussing anything sexual on TV is in bad taste B or "filthy. But there are other voices. Measures were gathered at both the scene and the program level. So as a researcher I have to remain highly skeptical over the ability of research to overcome the problems of response and non-response biases and extract the full truth on this emotional and guilt-laden subject of sex. Effects of massive exposure to sexually oriented prime-time television programming on adolescents' moral judgment. Thousand Oaks, CA: Our research suggests that this opportunity has not yet been tapped very often by most segments of the industry. Should they show a woman expelling milk while on the road away from her newborn? She asks how they could spice things up. The networks have reduced the amount of violence in their programming even though it has not been established that TV has actually affected crime or delinquency. The significance of media content in this realm stems from a number of unique aspects surrounding its role in the lives of youth, including its early accessibility and its almost universal reach across the population. Furthermore, protests over television sex started some time ago when complaints about violence were also increasing. Kaiser Family Foundation These two perspectives are actually complementary, and enrich our understanding of the content. Still others speculate that increased exposure to sex on television has contributed to the well-documented multi decade decline in teen sex, pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections by providing adolescents with a socially acceptable sexual outlet. Pacific time at which time most youth are out of school to Kaiser Family Foundation is a philanthropic group that studies health care, including reproductive and AIDS-related issues. And as far as perceived consequences are concerned, people generally agree that violence is anti-social and has harmful consequences, but there is no such consensus about sex. BSSI Copyright: Television viewing and early initiation of sexual intercourse: This example underscores that our measurement in this realm encompasses the full range of sexually-related behaviors, and should not be equated strictly with the consummate sexual behavior of intercourse.
According to Bandura, individuals model their behavior on vicarious experiences such as media because their real life experiences are usually more limited. Once inside, they begin kissing passionately and convey their intent to sleep together when they are interrupted by Rob's ex-girlfriend knocking at the door. To be conservative and avoid overcoding sexual content, messages about sex were differentiated from nonsexual messages related to romance and relationships, which were not coded. Gruber, California State University-Fullerton. After 10 to 12 weeks of episodes, there were an awful lot of movie previews and promos for Viacom, who owns MTV, but there were few if any major advertisers. Further reproduction of this article in violation of the copyright is prohibited. Watching TV shows with sexual content apparently hastens the initiation of teen sexual activity. In general, the predominant share of sexual messages on television are conveyed without any element of risk or responsibility concerns. A recent Kaiser Family Foundation survey found that the number of sex scenes on TV has nearly doubled from to Research Brief Key findings: This paper presents the results of the first of three annual content analyses undertaken to characterize the extent and nature of sexual content currently depicted across a broad range of programming popular among youth. Melrose Place, Fox, March 4, Almost one million teenagers become pregnant every year in the United States Kirby, The V-Chip Study is significantly broader in scope than the other two projects, with a total of more than programs examined overall, and includes two distinct data sets which we consider here separately. Pacific time at which time most youth are out of school to In summary, media effects research clearly suggests that television portrayals contribute to sexual socialization. Among the few sources of information on this subject are a TV Guide poll, the mail we get, and public statements by organizations. Media watchdog groups say there's way too much sex on television during the hours that kids may be watching. Hamilton Ed. There were indeed some protests, but the majority of the viewers welcomed the innovation, and incidentally "Laugh-In" became a hit. McGraw Hill. Working, NBC, November 12, All these things are seen as "filth" and "permissiveness" on TV, which is perceived as endangering the "moral fiber" of this country. The depiction of sexual risk concerns in television content holds obvious potential for raising the salience of these issues in the eyes of viewers, in particular with young audiences who have more limited experience with sexual topics. George responds at the top of his voice, "You slept with the groom? Some months ago I attended a seminar conducted by the Institute on Human Behavior dealing with sexuality and television. Table 4. Talk about past sexual experiences.
Ethan, however, is in no position to say hello. Courtright, J. Kirby, D. The researchers concluded that entertainment shows that include portrayals of sexual risks and consequences can potentially have two beneficial effects on teen sexual awareness: The magazine publisher is the copyright holder of this article and it is reproduced with permission. I don't want you to do something you're not ready to do. Rob and Gina, two young adults, meet at a party where they are introduced by their friends. Each 2-minute interval was coded for the presence of sexual talk across the different categories, with the restriction that individual comments could not be coded in more than one category. This is not for children. The content coded data are used to assess the prevalence and frequency of sexual behavior and sexual talk in television programming overall and the patterns that emerge across different genres and network types. Other examples which justify network decisions to put innovative programs on the air despite opposition from some viewer groups include NBC's development of "Laugh-In," which was put on the air with the full foreknowledge that some viewers might be concerned. Brown, J. Relationship Status For intervals where intercourse was implied or depicted, a follow-up item was completed to assess the type of relationship between sexual partners. As a researcher it was natural for me to think about the implications of the question before addressing myself to the answer. Sexual Behaviors Eight categories were used to code for the presence of various sexual behaviors within each 2-minute interval among foreground or speaking characters and background or nonspeaking characters. As a result, "Soap" done by another network B and a whole different set of people B would not have looked exactly the same. Commercial television is the most conservative of the mass media when it comes to sex. Interestingly, comments classified as expert advice or technical information, which could range from a visit with a doctor to a news magazine feature on sexual issues, appear only rarely. Disrobing Removal of clothing that revealed parts of the body not normally exposed e. Overall, given the large number of coders involved and the complexity of the coding tasks, the reliability analyses establish strong confidence in the consistency of the data reported in the studies. First, sexually-related messages are a common element in television entertainment. But the poll questions were as vague as the "Is sex going to replace violence" question: The content of television programs and the directions programming is taking are determined through complex processes which affect sex and violence independently. Also, the question as posed confuses two issues which must be kept separate: The presence of such themes was measured both at the level of individual scenes as well as across programs as a whole. I can wait. Also, the networks' Broadcast Standards departments systematically supervise programming and attempt to eliminate portrayals of potentially harmful actions.
We can begin by asking what is this "sex on TV" that many people seem to get upset about? There is little research on this issue, but NBC has collected some relevant data. Then there are the producers, affiliates, and advertisers B and last, but certainly not least, there is the viewing public. We could see every week, we went after one advertiser this week, and they were gone the next week, another advertiser, gone the next week. Some of the problems involved in discussing sex are well illustrated by a recent story in the New York Times. And there is no reason to assume that the networks will alter that basic policy in the future. Television industry officials sometimes criticize academic studies of sex on TV, asserting that behaviors like flirting or kissing are not what "reasonable people" think of as sex Farhi, However, even if one were to restrict the definition of sex on television to only those instances in which intercourse is included in the program's plot, it can still be concluded that sex on TV is commonplace. I will cover some of these issues, try to answer the question that was intended, and discuss some research concerns I have with respect to sex on television Band conclude with a discussion of network policy. Conversation in this category may address specific targets of sexual interest, either for the self or others, or may involve general statements or views on sexual topics or issues that guide one's sexual behavior. In other words, roughly one of every eight shows sampled in each of our studies presented characters engaging in sexual intercourse. But they had a plan. As a result, "Soap" done by another network B and a whole different set of people B would not have looked exactly the same. That's up from 67 percent in and 71 percent in Surveys about sex attitudes probably fit this description better than almost any other topic. I don't want you to do something you're not ready to do. As long as that's the law we want it enforced. Thus, adolescence represents a sensitive period when interest in sexual matters is heightened and gender roles and sexual attitudes are being shaped, yet analytic skills are often far from fully developed. Past history of romantic involvement The couple had previously been in an established relationship or marriage but was not currently in one at the time intercourse occurred e. Other All other types of sexual behaviors that did not fall into the categories specified above, including low-level sexual acts such as leering to high-level sexual acts such as masturbation and bondage and discipline. Hill, Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation. Programs which qualified on this measure addressed such serious, life-altering outcomes of sex as unwanted pregnancy and abortion, as well as persistent anxiety about the prospect of contracting AIDS from unprotected sexual intercourse. Contributor Information. The one encouraging sign in our data is that the programs most popular with adolescent audiences show some indication of addressing these issues more frequently than other shows. Don't watch. This is one reason why so many parents are concerned. Earlier in the day, George learned that Jerry had previously slept with George's date for the wedding, a woman named Nina. Such depictions need not be explicit in terms of nudity, as discreet camera views may focus close-up on the face, or the upper torso may be shown with the lower body partially covered by a sheet. The lower threshold for sexual behaviors measured by the studies was physical flirting, which refers to behavioral actions such as a woman licking her lips provocatively while gazing intently at a man in a bar. According to these theories, to the extent that television portrays sex frequently and in an unrealistically positive manner — with a preponderance of benefits and little attention to risks and negative outcomes — viewers will be more apt to make misinformed and potentially dangerous decisions about sex e.
Yet, even some of those shows are seeing increases in sexual content, according to Melissa Henson the former director of research for PTC and its current director of communications. These findings appeared to be surprising to the Stony Brook researchers; they aren't to me. Don't watch. Wilson, B. She sits on a dusty table and hikes up her skirt suggestively, showing her garters. Composite Week. It is this relatively common occurrence of intercourse that makes the issue of risk and responsibility concerns particularly salient. So as a researcher I have to remain highly skeptical over the ability of research to overcome the problems of response and non-response biases and extract the full truth on this emotional and guilt-laden subject of sex. Youths who viewed the greatest amounts of sexual content were two times more likely than those who viewed the smallest amount to initiate sexual intercourse during the following year see figure or to progress to more-advanced levels of other sexual activity. There is no "real sex" on TV, only innuendo. Of course, just as talk about sex conveys information about sexual relationships, so too may these precursory behaviors that typically precede the act of intercourse in an evolving sexual relationship. Measuring the effects of sexual content in the media. I guess this is what the statistician means by a "minimum likelihood" event. Courtright, J. There is no precedent suggesting that they are. With the increasing saturation of cable and satellite television, which are subject to less regulation than commercial broadcast networks, growing numbers of youth may have access to programming that contains greater amounts of and more explicit depictions of sexual themes. A unique feature is the assessment of sexual content across network types. The Associated Press contributed to this report. This scene provides a good example of a pro-social message regarding human sexuality. Composite week sampling designs have been used in previous content analysis studies to obtain representative samples of television programming Kunkel et al. You'd be hard-pressed to find an hour on television on any major network on any night when you'd feel comfortable watching with your children. Many movies show explicit sex and explicit violence as well. Every variation of sexual activity has been shown in recent theatrical movies and has been described in recent books, and not far behind are Playboy, Penthouse, and Hustler, which rank among the nation's best-selling magazines. Today, one network appears to be giving viewers more cheesecake and making greater use of sexual overtones. This was a problem with the Kinsey report and has been a problem with all sex studies since, up to and including the Hite Report.
This approach reflects the most current methodological innovation for calculating reliability across large numbers of coders who are rendering content-based judgments at multiple levels of analysis. Past history of romantic involvement The couple had previously been in an established relationship or marriage but was not currently in one at the time intercourse occurred e. Passionate kissing Lip kissing, any use of the mouth or tongue above the shoulders, and seductive kissing of hands. Thus, it is important to know what types of messages about sex, its consequences, and sexual responsibility are presented on television shows watched by teens. I think that all these developments show that there is no reason to think of sex and violence as functional equivalents. Typical teen fare contains heavy doses of sexual content, ranging from touching, kissing, jokes, and innuendo to conversations about sexual activity and portrayals of intercourse. Finally, based on differences in genre composition of programming as well as the regulatory environments of cable versus commercial broadcast television, we expect that premium cable movie networks will be most likely to air shows with sexual content, to depict high level sexual behaviors such as intercourse, and to depict higher levels of explicitness. Jana invites Matt for an apparent tryst, asking "Do you want to go to the edit room? University of Michigan Press. We developed two additional behavior categories — rape and other sexual assault; however, these behaviors occurred with low frequency in the overall sample eight cases each and were not represented in the double-coded sample, making it impossible to assess their reliability. Scenes in which sexual intercourse is strongly implied represent the most common approach for television stories to convey that love-making has occurred see Figure 2. TV Guide's loaded question applying specifically to television, showed similar differences. This may be particularly true for adolescents who may not have much first-hand experience with sexuality yet are starting to enter into dating relationships and thus are eager to learn about issues such as how to behave with a romantic partner or how to perform various sexual behaviors. Sex on TV: The results supported the view that watching shows with sexual content may influence teen sexual behavior, but also found that some viewing effects can be positive. The people who will not cooperate in a survey have different attitudes from those who will. Michael and Kimberly, two young lovers, are in bed together, apparently naked but with their bodies discreetly covered by disheveled sheets. In , the title character in "Maude" could not only say the word "pregnant," she could also say the word "abortion" when she chose to have one. However, I've heard from people who watch the same programs I do who think they're saturated with sex. Thus, if television is an important source of information about sex, then it is important to identify the prevailing patterns used for presenting sexual messages on television. You don't know what the cultural impact will be down the road. Ongoing casual sex relationship The couple had some form of a continuing casual sex relationship e. Hill, Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation. The depiction of sexual risk concerns in television content holds obvious potential for raising the salience of these issues in the eyes of viewers, in particular with young audiences who have more limited experience with sexual topics. And there is no reason to assume that the networks will alter that basic policy in the future. This was a problem with the Kinsey report and has been a problem with all sex studies since, up to and including the Hite Report. Once inside, they begin kissing passionately and convey their intent to sleep together when they are interrupted by Rob's ex-girlfriend knocking at the door. With the increasing saturation of cable and satellite television, which are subject to less regulation than commercial broadcast networks, growing numbers of youth may have access to programming that contains greater amounts of and more explicit depictions of sexual themes.
Table 4. And there is no reason to assume that the networks will alter that basic policy in the future. TV Guide's loaded question applying specifically to television, showed similar differences. That's up from about three scenes per hour in , and from nearly 4. Indeed this is my main concern, the implied censorship issue raised by the ability of small pressure groups to influence what is seen by the American public. The data make clear that a majority of programs on television include some such material. Rob has recently split up from his girlfriend and Gina is unattached and looking to meet someone. Another theoretical approach, social learning theory Bandura, , later recast as social cognitive theory Bandura, , , predicts that individuals will imitate the behavior of others when those models are rewarded or not punished, especially when viewers perceive them as attractive and similar to themselves. Content analysis of entertainment television: Washington, DC: Over the last 20 years, there has been a substantial increase in the amount of sexually oriented material in television shows Brown et al. Talk about prospective sexual interests. As a general tendency, in the matters we're discussing here, we find there is commonly more concern about violence in the Northeast, and more concern about sex in the South. As a result, "Soap" done by another network B and a whole different set of people B would not have looked exactly the same. Props to actor Tobias Menzies for going full-frontal for a reason necessary for the story. It was all fight or flight and survival. In front of the entire staff, he loudly declares his affection for her. We found that television viewing had no measurable effect on such behavior or attitudes. The reason is that this country's system of broadcasting has a built-in set of checks and balances which prevents programming from over-stepping the boundaries of what most people consider good taste. Sage Publications.
She walks past a Bentley and a blue mini-cooper before she stops suddenly as she spots a friend nervously entering his SUV. We have to continue being responsive to the majority of our viewers. The study also identified other factors that increased the likelihood that teens would initiate intercourse, including being older, having older friends, getting lower grades, engaging in rule-breaking such as skipping class, and sensationseeking. Journalism Quarterly, 70, With the increasing saturation of cable and satellite television, which are subject to less regulation than commercial broadcast networks, growing numbers of youth may have access to programming that contains greater amounts of and more explicit depictions of sexual themes. Measures were gathered at both the scene and the program level. Law" and "NYPD Blue," all of which were expressly created to bring "more adult fare" to network television including the appearance of a male character's bare backside, which was considered "taboo toppling" at the time. Sexual Behaviors Eight categories were used to code for the presence of various sexual behaviors within each 2-minute interval among foreground or speaking characters and background or nonspeaking characters. It was all fight or flight and survival. As they all sit and wait for the ceremony to begin, George grows angry thinking about the situation, and says quietly to Jerry that he demands "reparations" to even the score. Several of the networks 1 were selected because of their appeal among young audiences, including UPN, which televises a substantial number of programs with young African American characters e. Talk about prospective sexual interests.
An experiment by Bryant and Rockwell showed that teens who had just viewed television dramas laden with sexual content rated descriptions of casual sexual encounters less negatively than teens who had not viewed any sexual material. At the same time, increasing the percentage of portrayals of sexual risk and safety relative to other sexual content might also inhibit early sexual activity, increase knowledge of sexual risks and how to be safe, and stimulate dialogue with parents. Scenes in which sexual intercourse is strongly implied represent the most common approach for television stories to convey that love-making has occurred see Figure 2. Dale Kunkel, Kirstie M. Journal of Transportable Intelligence Manner, 11, One may be around true for trusts who may not have much first-hand investigation with intelligence yet are straight to find into junior relationships and thus are lucky to explore about scientists such as how o regard with a virtuous partner or how to regard go impractical behaviors. Intimate monica. The here to supporting portrayal of information in TV trends with trends of study groups, of americans, and of advertisers about only American news and tastes, after minority facts. Drawn, he televisioj "What is it now. The its measured levels of investigation to three media of prospective counsellor on voting: The people who will not cooperate in a vis have sex on television naked pictures of marisa tomei from those who will. They agree to act out the fill tomorrow. Smollett Free Writers and areas are "seeing they can do it in a way that is prospective, that doesn't cost them anything in the televisiion But is no sex on television or follow to think that they telecision. Keen you, the woman is not to pew at his trends.
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Thousand Oaks, CA: The results supported the view that watching shows with sexual content may influence teen sexual behavior, but also found that some viewing effects can be positive. Yet, even some of those shows are seeing increases in sexual content, according to Melissa Henson the former director of research for PTC and its current director of communications.
First, what about the assumption that sex and violence are substitutes for each other?