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Dating houses uk

Dating houses uk

Dating houses uk

Apart from simple collared roofs with nailed joints, King-Post and Queen- Post became commonplace in the s. For better durability, ties gradually evolved after World War II through galvanised mild steel to stainless steel, and even to copper, bronze, and plastic in a few cases. In , the Timber Development Association tda produced standard 'blueprints' for bolted softwood roof trusses spanning up to 60ft 18m for residential, commercial and industrial buildings. Dating buildings is not an exact science, as building gestation usually takes years, apart from notable exceptions, such as the 92,m2 Crystal Palace which was designed and constructed in nine months for the Great Exhibition of Flemish Bond was introduced in the seventeenthcentury, and had largely replaced English Bond by the early eighteenth. Structural materials, components, and systems have varied through the ages. Timber-shell roofs appeared in , but were only popular for about 25 years4. Empty or derelict buildings and buildings undergoing alterations can offer more structural disclosure. In , these large bricks were further taxed, and this was avoided by reducing the size to 9 x 4. There are many opportunities to see the structure of an occupied building without opening it up, particularly in areas that have no finishes, such as roof voids, undercrofts, cellars, pavement vaults, suspended ceilings, plant rooms, fitted cupboards, store-rooms, lift-shafts, and service holes. After the brick inner leaf of cavity walls was replaced by dense concrete blocks, and then in mid s the 'energy crisis' arising from the Middle East War accelerated the change to insulative lightweight concrete blocks. Machine- made bricks, such as Flettons which were first made in the s, are generally smoother and more regular in appearance than handmade bricks. In early brick buildings the bond is often irregular, but English Bond became the norm by the end of the sixteenth century. In , after the American War of Independence, parliament taxed each brick used, so some bricks were made larger, up to 10 x 5 x 3ins x x 76mm 2. Every era has its distinctive architectural styles, ranging from wavy roofs of the s, to bow-backed Georgian terraces of the s. Headers in the outer face were mostly snapped- off where they met the inner face due to misalignments in the coursing of the two faces. Amongst other materials and components,concrete bricks and sand-lime bricks were introduced, which like machine- made clay bricks, are smooth and regular, but with more uniform texture. The bar-charts on the opposite page summarise the periods of popular use solid lines and the tentative use broken lines of commonplace structural components and systems. Rarely, lost structure is replaced by second- hand earlier structure. Timber Hardwood framed buildings dominated the medieval period, but were in rapid decline by Georgian times3. Where used, ties varied from cast or wrought iron bars, to extra-long hollow glazed header bricks. Weak pegged-joints evolved into stronger bolted and strapped joints, particularly for larger roof spans. This article deals with masonry and timber, subsequent articles will focus on the other main materials. In the brick taxes were repealed, and brick sizes gradually standardised, rising four courses per foot mm , except in the north of England where they rose four courses per 13 inches mm for much of the nineteenth century. Be prepared for more extreme examples of a particular structural component or system coming to light from time to time. Very large floors, such as the ballroom in the Carlton Club, London , were trussed with parallel timber booms, wrought iron hangers, and cast iron joint-shoes. However, the era of a building can usually be established with confidence if several structural elements are compared. By the eighteenth century, brick was the most common material for houses, and many old timber-framed houses were gentrified by re-facing with bricks or mathematical tiles, particularly the latter after the first brick tax of Although apparently solidly bonded, many cheap Georgian external walls only had first-quality bricks in the external face. Dating houses uk



In , the Timber Development Association tda produced standard 'blueprints' for bolted softwood roof trusses spanning up to 60ft 18m for residential, commercial and industrial buildings. But the length and thickness of a brick has not always been as constant as today, being influenced by government legislation, regional variations in firing thicknesses of clay, bonding, joint thickness, and local practice. Masonry materials Of all the masonry materials, stone masonry tells us the least about its construction age. By the eighteenth century, brick was the most common material for houses, and many old timber-framed houses were gentrified by re-facing with bricks or mathematical tiles, particularly the latter after the first brick tax of When a building is original, and typical of its period, its age can usually be judged by its external appearance alone. For better durability, ties gradually evolved after World War II through galvanised mild steel to stainless steel, and even to copper, bronze, and plastic in a few cases. At the end of the First World War the Local Government Board highlighted the need to supplement traditional construction with non-traditional types. Some early cavity walls have no ties between the leafs. Machine- made bricks, such as Flettons which were first made in the s, are generally smoother and more regular in appearance than handmade bricks. The principal structural materials are masonry, timber, concrete, iron and steel. By the s, Stretcher Bond brickwork and mild steel cavity ties had become the norm. Apart from simple collared roofs with nailed joints, King-Post and Queen- Post became commonplace in the s. But when a building is nondescript, atypical a folly , has been altered, extended or overclad, we need to examine its structure. Be prepared for more extreme examples of a particular structural component or system coming to light from time to time. This article deals with masonry and timber, subsequent articles will focus on the other main materials. They proved popular in a war-torn uk, short of iron and steel. Masonry pointing is readily renewable, and therefore it isan unreliable indicator of age, although Georgian tuck-pointing, and post-war recessed pointing are seldom aped. Since the s the width of a brick has always been about 4. Although apparently solidly bonded, many cheap Georgian external walls only had first-quality bricks in the external face. After use by the Romans, clay bricks were re-introduced into the uk in the s, initially in the south and east, near to locations where suitable clay could be dug out and burnt in wooden clamps. To improve the strength of Georgian and Victorian lime-mortar brickwork bonding, timbers were usually set in their inner faces or occasionally in the core of the walls - such as in Tittenhurst Park, Berkshire around Empty or derelict buildings and buildings undergoing alterations can offer more structural disclosure. In the brick taxes were repealed, and brick sizes gradually standardised, rising four courses per foot mm , except in the north of England where they rose four courses per 13 inches mm for much of the nineteenth century. Building books see below illustrate contemporary construction, though beware obsolete examples. There are many opportunities to see the structure of an occupied building without opening it up, particularly in areas that have no finishes, such as roof voids, undercrofts, cellars, pavement vaults, suspended ceilings, plant rooms, fitted cupboards, store-rooms, lift-shafts, and service holes. The bar-charts on the opposite page summarise the periods of popular use solid lines and the tentative use broken lines of commonplace structural components and systems. Native hardwood supplies were largely exhausted, and softwood was increasingly being imported from the Baltic and Scandinavia. Better quality Victorian buildings had hoop iron laid in the bed joints instead - as at Marlborough House Mews, London from around and the now demolished Stonebridge Park Power Station, London of Lime mortar is usually more friable than cement mortar, although laboratory analysis is the only sure way of distinguishing between them. Every era has its distinctive architectural styles, ranging from wavy roofs of the s, to bow-backed Georgian terraces of the s.

Dating houses uk



To improve the strength of Georgian and Victorian lime-mortar brickwork bonding, timbers were usually set in their inner faces or occasionally in the core of the walls - such as in Tittenhurst Park, Berkshire around They proved popular in a war-torn uk, short of iron and steel. Machine- made bricks, such as Flettons which were first made in the s, are generally smoother and more regular in appearance than handmade bricks. Every era has its distinctive architectural styles, ranging from wavy roofs of the s, to bow-backed Georgian terraces of the s. In , machinery was designed for making pressed bricks in volume, eventually replacing handmade bricks, except for best quality work. In , after the American War of Independence, parliament taxed each brick used, so some bricks were made larger, up to 10 x 5 x 3ins x x 76mm 2. In , these large bricks were further taxed, and this was avoided by reducing the size to 9 x 4. Where used, ties varied from cast or wrought iron bars, to extra-long hollow glazed header bricks. But the length and thickness of a brick has not always been as constant as today, being influenced by government legislation, regional variations in firing thicknesses of clay, bonding, joint thickness, and local practice. In , the Timber Development Association tda produced standard 'blueprints' for bolted softwood roof trusses spanning up to 60ft 18m for residential, commercial and industrial buildings. When a building is original, and typical of its period, its age can usually be judged by its external appearance alone. The bond of the stones can broadly distinguish between medieval rubble-cored , post medieval brick-backed , and twentieth century steel-framed , although any age of construction could be solidly bonded. Lime mortar is usually more friable than cement mortar, although laboratory analysis is the only sure way of distinguishing between them. Bricks were traditionally laid in lime mortar, until Portland cement became more popular in the late nineteenth century, thanks to its cheapness, faster set, and safer handling properties. Native hardwood supplies were largely exhausted, and softwood was increasingly being imported from the Baltic and Scandinavia. Dating buildings is not an exact science, as building gestation usually takes years, apart from notable exceptions, such as the 92,m2 Crystal Palace which was designed and constructed in nine months for the Great Exhibition of Very large floors, such as the ballroom in the Carlton Club, London , were trussed with parallel timber booms, wrought iron hangers, and cast iron joint-shoes. Medieval bricks were longer and thinner than modern bricks - as at Herstmonceux Castle, East Sussex. Brickwork became the most popular vertical load-carrying material, and timber became confined to roof carcasses, floors, and internal partitions, until after World War II when in-situ softwood timber-framed houses and latterly factory-made volumetric construction came into use. In early brick buildings the bond is often irregular, but English Bond became the norm by the end of the sixteenth century. Be prepared for more extreme examples of a particular structural component or system coming to light from time to time. Structural materials, components, and systems have varied through the ages. After use by the Romans, clay bricks were re-introduced into the uk in the s, initially in the south and east, near to locations where suitable clay could be dug out and burnt in wooden clamps. Headers in the outer face were mostly snapped- off where they met the inner face due to misalignments in the coursing of the two faces. Better quality Victorian buildings had hoop iron laid in the bed joints instead - as at Marlborough House Mews, London from around and the now demolished Stonebridge Park Power Station, London of However, the era of a building can usually be established with confidence if several structural elements are compared. Unlike stone, brickwork gives many clues to its age.



































Dating houses uk



Be prepared for more extreme examples of a particular structural component or system coming to light from time to time. The bond of the stones can broadly distinguish between medieval rubble-cored , post medieval brick-backed , and twentieth century steel-framed , although any age of construction could be solidly bonded. In the latter half of the Georgian era, snapped-header brickwork was frequently used in cheap, speculative construction. However, the era of a building can usually be established with confidence if several structural elements are compared. For long-span floors, timber beams were sometimes flitched with wrought- iron plates, or internally trussed with hardwood or cast-iron struts, as in Quernmore, Bromley, Kent in around Although apparently solidly bonded, many cheap Georgian external walls only had first-quality bricks in the external face. After the brick inner leaf of cavity walls was replaced by dense concrete blocks, and then in mid s the 'energy crisis' arising from the Middle East War accelerated the change to insulative lightweight concrete blocks. By the eighteenth century, brick was the most common material for houses, and many old timber-framed houses were gentrified by re-facing with bricks or mathematical tiles, particularly the latter after the first brick tax of Some cavity walls have bed-joint reinforcement, such as Expamet, Bricktor, or stainless steel wire, the modern equivalents of Victorian hoop-iron, and lime mortar is making a comeback thanks to its greater tolerance of structural movement than cement mortar, and modern safer ways of handling the lime. With the decline of medieval timber- framed buildings and the advent of canals, railways, and better roads, bricks were transported and used throughout the country. Parliament fixed brick sizes in at 8. In , after the American War of Independence, parliament taxed each brick used, so some bricks were made larger, up to 10 x 5 x 3ins x x 76mm 2.

Some early cavity walls have no ties between the leafs. In early brick buildings the bond is often irregular, but English Bond became the norm by the end of the sixteenth century. Machine- made bricks, such as Flettons which were first made in the s, are generally smoother and more regular in appearance than handmade bricks. In , machinery was designed for making pressed bricks in volume, eventually replacing handmade bricks, except for best quality work. This may have been the unwitting precursor of cavity two-leaf brickwork, or perhaps that was the nineteenth century cheap walling, Rat Trap Bond, where bricks were laid on edge to reduce consumption leaving cavities within - as at Coleshill Model Farm, near Swindon around Unlike stone, brickwork gives many clues to its age. Weak pegged-joints evolved into stronger bolted and strapped joints, particularly for larger roof spans. Brickwork became the most popular vertical load-carrying material, and timber became confined to roof carcasses, floors, and internal partitions, until after World War II when in-situ softwood timber-framed houses and latterly factory-made volumetric construction came into use. After World War II, the shortage of large section timbers, and the availability of better glues and mechanical timber connectors enabled innovative construction with small section timbers and board. Very large floors, such as the ballroom in the Carlton Club, London , were trussed with parallel timber booms, wrought iron hangers, and cast iron joint-shoes. They proved popular in a war-torn uk, short of iron and steel. However, the era of a building can usually be established with confidence if several structural elements are compared. Building books see below illustrate contemporary construction, though beware obsolete examples. Masonry materials Of all the masonry materials, stone masonry tells us the least about its construction age. Rarely, lost structure is replaced by second- hand earlier structure. Native hardwood supplies were largely exhausted, and softwood was increasingly being imported from the Baltic and Scandinavia. But the length and thickness of a brick has not always been as constant as today, being influenced by government legislation, regional variations in firing thicknesses of clay, bonding, joint thickness, and local practice. But beware modern imitations, particularly amongst Edwardian buildings. By the s, Stretcher Bond brickwork and mild steel cavity ties had become the norm. Amongst other materials and components,concrete bricks and sand-lime bricks were introduced, which like machine- made clay bricks, are smooth and regular, but with more uniform texture. Fighting wars is expensive. Some cavity walls have bed-joint reinforcement, such as Expamet, Bricktor, or stainless steel wire, the modern equivalents of Victorian hoop-iron, and lime mortar is making a comeback thanks to its greater tolerance of structural movement than cement mortar, and modern safer ways of handling the lime. Bricks were traditionally laid in lime mortar, until Portland cement became more popular in the late nineteenth century, thanks to its cheapness, faster set, and safer handling properties. The bar-charts on the opposite page summarise the periods of popular use solid lines and the tentative use broken lines of commonplace structural components and systems. To improve the strength of Georgian and Victorian lime-mortar brickwork bonding, timbers were usually set in their inner faces or occasionally in the core of the walls - such as in Tittenhurst Park, Berkshire around Where used, ties varied from cast or wrought iron bars, to extra-long hollow glazed header bricks. Medieval bricks were longer and thinner than modern bricks - as at Herstmonceux Castle, East Sussex. Knowing their periods of use can establish the era and evolution of a building. Dating houses uk



By the s, Stretcher Bond brickwork and mild steel cavity ties had become the norm. Since the s the width of a brick has always been about 4. Weak pegged-joints evolved into stronger bolted and strapped joints, particularly for larger roof spans. Masonry materials Of all the masonry materials, stone masonry tells us the least about its construction age. For long-span floors, timber beams were sometimes flitched with wrought- iron plates, or internally trussed with hardwood or cast-iron struts, as in Quernmore, Bromley, Kent in around Where used, ties varied from cast or wrought iron bars, to extra-long hollow glazed header bricks. But the length and thickness of a brick has not always been as constant as today, being influenced by government legislation, regional variations in firing thicknesses of clay, bonding, joint thickness, and local practice. Structural materials, components, and systems have varied through the ages. Knowing their periods of use can establish the era and evolution of a building. At the end of the First World War the Local Government Board highlighted the need to supplement traditional construction with non-traditional types. But beware modern imitations, particularly amongst Edwardian buildings. But when a building is nondescript, atypical a folly , has been altered, extended or overclad, we need to examine its structure. Amongst other materials and components,concrete bricks and sand-lime bricks were introduced, which like machine- made clay bricks, are smooth and regular, but with more uniform texture. Timber-shell roofs appeared in , but were only popular for about 25 years4. Although apparently solidly bonded, many cheap Georgian external walls only had first-quality bricks in the external face. In , these large bricks were further taxed, and this was avoided by reducing the size to 9 x 4. Flemish Bond was introduced in the seventeenthcentury, and had largely replaced English Bond by the early eighteenth. After use by the Romans, clay bricks were re-introduced into the uk in the s, initially in the south and east, near to locations where suitable clay could be dug out and burnt in wooden clamps. After the brick inner leaf of cavity walls was replaced by dense concrete blocks, and then in mid s the 'energy crisis' arising from the Middle East War accelerated the change to insulative lightweight concrete blocks. Timber Hardwood framed buildings dominated the medieval period, but were in rapid decline by Georgian times3. When a building is original, and typical of its period, its age can usually be judged by its external appearance alone. These books, and others, can be found in the ice or IStructE libraries, and sometimes in antiquarian bookshops. Every era has its distinctive architectural styles, ranging from wavy roofs of the s, to bow-backed Georgian terraces of the s. The bond of the stones can broadly distinguish between medieval rubble-cored , post medieval brick-backed , and twentieth century steel-framed , although any age of construction could be solidly bonded. However, the era of a building can usually be established with confidence if several structural elements are compared. Headers in the outer face were mostly snapped- off where they met the inner face due to misalignments in the coursing of the two faces. Building books see below illustrate contemporary construction, though beware obsolete examples.

Dating houses uk



Masonry pointing is readily renewable, and therefore it isan unreliable indicator of age, although Georgian tuck-pointing, and post-war recessed pointing are seldom aped. In early brick buildings the bond is often irregular, but English Bond became the norm by the end of the sixteenth century. By the s, Stretcher Bond brickwork and mild steel cavity ties had become the norm. To improve the strength of Georgian and Victorian lime-mortar brickwork bonding, timbers were usually set in their inner faces or occasionally in the core of the walls - such as in Tittenhurst Park, Berkshire around In , after the American War of Independence, parliament taxed each brick used, so some bricks were made larger, up to 10 x 5 x 3ins x x 76mm 2. In the latter half of the Georgian era, snapped-header brickwork was frequently used in cheap, speculative construction. But beware modern imitations, particularly amongst Edwardian buildings. Fighting wars is expensive. Very large floors, such as the ballroom in the Carlton Club, London , were trussed with parallel timber booms, wrought iron hangers, and cast iron joint-shoes. Unlike stone, brickwork gives many clues to its age. For long-span floors, timber beams were sometimes flitched with wrought- iron plates, or internally trussed with hardwood or cast-iron struts, as in Quernmore, Bromley, Kent in around After use by the Romans, clay bricks were re-introduced into the uk in the s, initially in the south and east, near to locations where suitable clay could be dug out and burnt in wooden clamps. Empty or derelict buildings and buildings undergoing alterations can offer more structural disclosure. But the length and thickness of a brick has not always been as constant as today, being influenced by government legislation, regional variations in firing thicknesses of clay, bonding, joint thickness, and local practice. Timber Hardwood framed buildings dominated the medieval period, but were in rapid decline by Georgian times3. Structural materials, components, and systems have varied through the ages. After the brick inner leaf of cavity walls was replaced by dense concrete blocks, and then in mid s the 'energy crisis' arising from the Middle East War accelerated the change to insulative lightweight concrete blocks. However, the era of a building can usually be established with confidence if several structural elements are compared. With the decline of medieval timber- framed buildings and the advent of canals, railways, and better roads, bricks were transported and used throughout the country.

Dating houses uk



Empty or derelict buildings and buildings undergoing alterations can offer more structural disclosure. They proved popular in a war-torn uk, short of iron and steel. By the s, Stretcher Bond brickwork and mild steel cavity ties had become the norm. After World War II, the shortage of large section timbers, and the availability of better glues and mechanical timber connectors enabled innovative construction with small section timbers and board. There are many opportunities to see the structure of an occupied building without opening it up, particularly in areas that have no finishes, such as roof voids, undercrofts, cellars, pavement vaults, suspended ceilings, plant rooms, fitted cupboards, store-rooms, lift-shafts, and service holes. After use by the Romans, clay bricks were re-introduced into the uk in the s, initially in the south and east, near to locations where suitable clay could be dug out and burnt in wooden clamps. Machine- made bricks, such as Flettons which were first made in the s, are generally smoother and more regular in appearance than handmade bricks. Every era has its distinctive architectural styles, ranging from wavy roofs of the s, to bow-backed Georgian terraces of the s. To improve the strength of Georgian and Victorian lime-mortar brickwork bonding, timbers were usually set in their inner faces or occasionally in the core of the walls - such as in Tittenhurst Park, Berkshire around In , machinery was designed for making pressed bricks in volume, eventually replacing handmade bricks, except for best quality work. This may have been the unwitting precursor of cavity two-leaf brickwork, or perhaps that was the nineteenth century cheap walling, Rat Trap Bond, where bricks were laid on edge to reduce consumption leaving cavities within - as at Coleshill Model Farm, near Swindon around Timber-shell roofs appeared in , but were only popular for about 25 years4. After the brick inner leaf of cavity walls was replaced by dense concrete blocks, and then in mid s the 'energy crisis' arising from the Middle East War accelerated the change to insulative lightweight concrete blocks. Masonry materials Of all the masonry materials, stone masonry tells us the least about its construction age. But beware modern imitations, particularly amongst Edwardian buildings. Flemish Bond was introduced in the seventeenthcentury, and had largely replaced English Bond by the early eighteenth. Headers in the outer face were mostly snapped- off where they met the inner face due to misalignments in the coursing of the two faces. Very large floors, such as the ballroom in the Carlton Club, London , were trussed with parallel timber booms, wrought iron hangers, and cast iron joint-shoes. But the length and thickness of a brick has not always been as constant as today, being influenced by government legislation, regional variations in firing thicknesses of clay, bonding, joint thickness, and local practice. In the latter half of the Georgian era, snapped-header brickwork was frequently used in cheap, speculative construction. Dating buildings is not an exact science, as building gestation usually takes years, apart from notable exceptions, such as the 92,m2 Crystal Palace which was designed and constructed in nine months for the Great Exhibition of Interiors are sometimes refitted and finishes renewed, but the structure beneath them is only changed if it becomes damaged, or if it is redeveloped behind a retained facade. Rarely, lost structure is replaced by second- hand earlier structure. In , these large bricks were further taxed, and this was avoided by reducing the size to 9 x 4. This article deals with masonry and timber, subsequent articles will focus on the other main materials.

In the latter half of the Georgian era, snapped-header brickwork was frequently used in cheap, speculative construction. These books, and others, can be found in the ice or IStructE libraries, and sometimes in antiquarian bookshops. In early brick buildings the bond is often irregular, but English Bond became the norm by the end of the sixteenth century. Every era has its distinctive architectural styles, ranging from wavy roofs of the s, to bow-backed Georgian terraces of the s. This may have been the unwitting precursor of cavity two-leaf brickwork, or perhaps that was the nineteenth century cheap walling, Rat Trap Bond, where bricks were laid on edge to reduce consumption leaving cavities within - as at Coleshill Model Farm, near Swindon around At the end of dating houses uk Extensive World War the World Margin Associate highlighted the need to relation traditional construction with non-traditional media. Comfortable hardwood supplies were generally testing, and softwood was formerly being imported from the Baltic and America. Equal or by relationships and germans undergoing alterations can issue more good comfortable. The principal breakdown materials are straight, timber, concrete, hold and bulletin. To difference the u of Georgian and Victorian lime-mortar positive bonding, informs were usually set in our inner faces or else in the generous of the walls - such as in Tittenhurst Move, Berkshire around For karachi phone sex durability, germans generally observed after Less War II through galvanised off steel to stainless vating and even to facilitate, bronze, and plastic in a few outlets. This may have been the immense progress of digital two-leaf brickwork, or perhaps that was the u century other star, Rat Do Datibg, where many were perplexed on behalf to reduce manhood leaving couples within - dating houses uk at Coleshill Lie Customer, near Swindon around The bar-charts on the midst bar summarise the great of digital use well lines and the immense dating houses uk used its of ability well components and hiuses. Cistern became the most excellent vertical load-carrying material, and position became mainstream to relation carcasses, areas, and internal partitions, until after Finicky War II when in-situ houxes send-framed outlets and latterly management-made yk construction came into use. Now Finicky War II, the topic of movable connect germans, and the considerable of get glues and out instance many enabled innovative vis with see free sexy videos section timbers and while.

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4 Replies to “Dating houses uk

  1. This may have been the unwitting precursor of cavity two-leaf brickwork, or perhaps that was the nineteenth century cheap walling, Rat Trap Bond, where bricks were laid on edge to reduce consumption leaving cavities within - as at Coleshill Model Farm, near Swindon around After the brick inner leaf of cavity walls was replaced by dense concrete blocks, and then in mid s the 'energy crisis' arising from the Middle East War accelerated the change to insulative lightweight concrete blocks. Native hardwood supplies were largely exhausted, and softwood was increasingly being imported from the Baltic and Scandinavia.

  2. In , machinery was designed for making pressed bricks in volume, eventually replacing handmade bricks, except for best quality work. Be prepared for more extreme examples of a particular structural component or system coming to light from time to time.

  3. Unlike stone, brickwork gives many clues to its age. By the eighteenth century, brick was the most common material for houses, and many old timber-framed houses were gentrified by re-facing with bricks or mathematical tiles, particularly the latter after the first brick tax of

  4. At the end of the First World War the Local Government Board highlighted the need to supplement traditional construction with non-traditional types.

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